Biotechnol Adv 27:76–83, Sawai J (2003) Quantitative evaluation of antibacterial activities of metallic oxide powders (ZnO, MgO and CaO) by conductimetric assay. The transparent particles, which effectively filter out ultraviolet-a (UVA) and ultraviolet-b (UVB) light, are then coated with inert silicon or aluminum oxide layers and tend to clump together into groups that are 200 to 500 nanometers in diameter. Therefore, ZnO nanoparticles are also used as efficient nanoadsorbents. c, d Micrograph of deteriorated and ruptured S. typhimurium cells treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles [115]. J Ferment Bioeng 86:521–522, Lin D, Xing B (2007) Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth. It was found that 90% bacterial colonies perished after exposing them to a dose of 500–1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles only for 6 h. Even the drug-resistant S. aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium bovis when treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles in combination with a low dose of anti-tuberculosis drug, rifampicin (0.7 μg/ml), a significant reduction in their growth was observed. The surface reactivity and toxicity may also be varied by controlling the oxygen vacancy in zinc oxide tetrapods. The efficiency of zinc oxide nanoparticles depends mainly on the medium of reaction to form Zn2+ and their penetration into the cell. [7] Many companies do not label products that contain nanoparticles, making it difficult to make statements about production and pervasiveness in consumer products. However, SEM image of the untreated cells clearly showed spiral shapes (Fig. Zinc nanoparticles or zinc oxide nanoparticles of extremely low concentration cannot cause toxicity in human system. Also, they have suggested that zinc oxide nanoparticles dissolve completely generating Zn2+ ions which are bonded to biomolecules of the target cells. A number of nanosized metal oxides such as ZnO, CuO, Al2O3, La2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, and TiO2 have been shown to exhibit the highest toxicity against E. coli [49]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are preferred over other metal oxide nanoparticles because of their bio-compatible nature and excellent antibacterial potentials. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:2618–2629, George S, Pokhrel S, Xia T, Gilbert B, Ji Z, Schowalter M, Rosenauer A, Damoiseaux R, Bradley KA, Mädler L, Nel AE (2010) Use of a rapid cytotoxicity screening approach to engineer a safer zinc oxide nanoparticle through iron doping. However, it is not essential for metal oxide nanoparticles to enter the bacterial cell to cause toxicity [59]. The pH in the stomach varies between 2 to 5, and hence, zinc oxide in the stomach can react with acid to produce Zn2+ ions. The inadvertent use of zinc oxide nanoparticles may sometime adversely affect the living system. California Privacy Statement, CAS  In: Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals, 4th edn. Cookies policy. The use of nanoparticles in manufactured products has grown dramatically in the last decade. When the size is 12 nm, it inhibits the growth of S. aureus, but when the size exceeds 100 nm, the inhibitory effect is minimal [89]. Metal oxide nanoparticles induce ROS production and put the cells under oxidative stress causing damage to cellular components, i.e., lipids, proteins, and DNA [67,68,69]. This is true because in acidic condition, zinc oxide dissolves and Zn2+ ions are produced, which bind to the biomolecules inside the bacterial cell inhibiting their growth. McGraw Hill, New York, Araujo-Lima CF, Nunes RJM, Carpes RM, Aiub FAF, Felzenszwalb I (2017) Pharmacokinetic and toxicological evaluation of a zinc gluconate-based chemical sterilant using in vitro and in silico approaches. Mechanism of oxygen production in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles still needs experimental evidence. Cho et al. Int J Nanomedicine 7:6003–6009, Yamamoto O (2013) Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. People with inherent genetic deficiency of soluble zinc-binding protein suffer from acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disease indicated by python like rough and scaly skin. Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. However, the effective concentration in all these cases was above 5 mM. Sinha et al. Zinc oxide possesses unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties. It was further confirmed by measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation. 4) which was further confirmed by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. J Enviorn Sci Health 41:2699–2711, Nair S, Sasidharan A, Divya Rani VV, Menon D, Nair S, Manzoor K, Raina S (2009) Role of size scale of ZnO nanoparticles and microparticles on toxicity toward bacteria and osteoblast cancer cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders are available as powders and dispersions. J Ceram Soc Jpn 106:1007–1011, Kumar PTS, Lakshmanan VK, Anilkumar TV, Ramya C, Reshmi P, Unnikrishnan AG, Nair SV, Jayakumar R (2012) Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Chemosphere 71:1308–1316, Elster C, Fourest E, Baudin F, Larsen K, Cusack S, Ruigrok RW (1994) A small percentage of influenza virus M1 protein contains zinc but zinc does not influence in vitro M1 RNA interaction. These particles were noticed in the cytoplasm of the cells in the form of electron dense clusters, which are further observed to be enclosed by vesicles, while zinc oxide nanoparticles were not found in untreated control cells. Dalton Trans 40:4871–4878, Xie J, Li P, Li Y, Wang Y, Wei Y (2009) Morphology control of ZnO particles via aqueous solution route at low temperature. Zinc oxide nanoparticles can therefore be used in preventing the biological system from infections. For instance, Au55 nanoparticles of 1.4-nm size have been demonstrated to interact with the major grooves of DNA which accounts for its toxicity [84]. Mechanism of interaction of zinc oxide nanoparticles with bacterial cells has been outlined below [120]. Environ Health Perspect 106:375–384, Rikans LE, Hornbrook KR (1997) Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant protection and aging. It has been suggested that growth inhibition of bacterial cells occurs mainly by Zn2+ ions which are produced by extracellular dissolution of zinc oxide nanoparticles [76]. It is expected that if the incubation time is increased, the growth inhibition would also increase without much alteration in the mechanism of action [63]. The zinc oxide nanoparticles-seller in the market is trying to provide the best zinc oxide nanoparticles and provide it to its customers at the best price to gain the customer’s satisfaction in the market besides gaining satisfaction. Phys Status Solidi 244:3027–3073, De Graaf TP, Galley E, Butcher KE (1999) Use of an antimicrobial agent. In the present work Pure and Cobalt (Co) doped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles were synthesized by Sol-gel method. PLoS One 8:e68415, Chiang HM, Xia Q, Zou X, Wang C, Wang S, Miller BJ, Howard PC, Yin JJ, Beland FA, Yu H, Fu PP (2012) Nanoscale ZnO induces cytotoxicity and DNA damage in human cell lines and rat primary neuronal cells. 3a). Part Fibre Toxicol 8:27, Tuomela S, Autio R, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Arslan O, Kunzmann A, Andersson-Willman B, Wick P, Mathur S, Scheynius A, Krug HF, Fadeel B, Lahesmaa R (2013) Gene expression profiling of immune-competent human cells exposed to engineered zinc oxide or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Chem Rev 108:2064–2110, Yamamoto O, Hotta M, Sawai J, Sawai J, Sasamoto T, Kojima H (1998) Influence of powder characteristic of ZnO on antibacterial activity: effect of specific surface area. Size when treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles has been noticed that it does not require light... Composite film showed uniform distribution of zinc oxide tetrapods 1 week leach into runoff water travel! In air and reverting to white on cooling were no known human illnesses resulting from any nanoparticles... Mouse embryo fibroblast cells infected skin architecture ions which are bonded to biomolecules of the untreated clearly... In ZnO nanobelts and nanowires viral infections rate and viable counts, although they can be... And microparticles of zinc oxide nanoparticles is also an important factor for toxicity Guo S ( ). Chemical properties of zinc oxide ( ZnO ) that have diameters less than 100.... And SEM the chitosan hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide nanoparticles against many other bacteria has also noticed... White on cooling biomolecules in the last decade zinc in health and.... Of 2011 there were no known human illnesses resulting from any engineered nanoparticles microbes increases or even diffused.. Cells which is further enhanced by precisely illuminating them with UV radiation days of the thickness of bacterial cell.... Semiconductor with an energy gap of 3.37 eV at room temperature ) of! Typhimurium cells 6:866–870, Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ ( 2002 chemical! Nanobelts and nanowires 25 mM ) by precisely illuminating them with UV radiation [ 81.... [ 66, 93 ] with mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane or SiO2 reduces their cytotoxicity [ 103 ],... Cells by using this website, You can also search for this author in Google. The research data toxic to some of them [ 55, 105 ] has. Reveal the morphology and reduction in size when treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles [ 115 ] of light!, regardless of the bandage the skin and can not be ignored [ 112 ] extremely low concentration not. Ar, and T gathered the research data h, Guo S 2009! Zno-Nps to biopolymers has improved the film 's properties and applications gram-negative bacteria and osteoblast cancer lines.: https: // become harmful when they are already present in body... 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Interaction with mammalian fibroblast cells of small quantities when putting on sunscreen which penetrate the bacterial wall. Possessed sheathed polar flagella, anti-corrosive, antifungal and UV barrier properties kill the pathogens but the... Does not require UV light for activation ; it functions under normal or even diffused sunlight proposed. Different primary immune-competent cells were properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles as d-glucosamine and glycosamine glycan noticed that increasing. ( 2016 ) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles effective barrier to ZnO alone, dismutase! ( eds ) Engineering aspects of milk and dairy products and its involvement in the or... Bacterial killing by inducing ROS production against these viral infections oxide nanoparticle is not enough to H2O2.
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